Acid wash is a process that fades and softens denim. Manufacturers tumble jeans in a drum containing a bleach solution that sometimes also contains pumice stones, which scuff the fabric while the bleach lightens it.
Bleach can significantly lighten denim or create a distressed, faded look, particularly if the bleach is used only in spots.
Cast is a denim dying process that gives jeans a layered-color look. Greencast and redcast are the two most popular casts for jeans. Greencast jeans are dyed with green sulfur and indigo, producing a faint blue-green look after multiple washes. Redcast jeans are dyed only with indigo, resulting in a nearly purple look before washing; after multiple washes, the denim fades to a vibrant blue.
The process of creating destroyed jeans using scissors or rough surfaces.
Enzyme washing is a process that uses enzymes that wear down exposed cellulose in denim. This process loosens dye particles and helps create a faded or worn look. Used as an alternative to acid washing, enzyme washing is generally regarded as an environmentally safe practice.
Frosted denim is fabric that features some patches of significantly lighter shades. The lighter shade can appear on the thighs, the seat or elsewhere.
Indigo is a water-soluble dye used to color denim blue.
Pigment dyeing is a process that colors fabric used in clothing and other items. Pigment dyeing isn’t technically dyeing, because pigment isn’t water-soluble; instead, the pigment sits on top of the fibers rather than penetrating it, as it would with traditional garment dyeing. When a pigment-dyed fabric ages, it produces a vintage look.
Rubber ball wash is a type of wash effect chosen during the garment-making process. To get a softer hand feel and to see more seam abrasion, specially sized rubber balls are added to the garment softener bath or during the drying treatment.
The process that controls denim shrinkage
Stone wash is a process manufacturers use to create a faded and worn appearance on denim. Stone-washed jeans are washed in a rotating drum with pumice stones or treated with a chemical that creates a similar appearance.